# First+proposition

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**epistemology**— epistemological /i pis teuh meuh loj i keuhl/, adj. epistemologically, adv. epistemologist, n. /i pis teuh mol euh jee/, n. a branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge. [1855 60; < Gk… …112

**logic, history of**— Introduction the history of the discipline from its origins among the ancient Greeks to the present time. Origins of logic in the West Precursors of ancient logic There was a medieval tradition according to which the Greek philosopher …113

**Late medieval logic**— Paul Vincent Spade I Medieval logic encompassed more than what we call logic today. It included semantics, philosophy of language, parts of physics, of philosophy of mind and of epistemology. Late medieval logic began around 1300 and lasted… …114

**Propositional calculus**— In mathematical logic, a propositional calculus or logic (also called sentential calculus or sentential logic) is a formal system in which formulas of a formal language may be interpreted as representing propositions. A system of inference rules… …115

**Principia Mathematica**— For Isaac Newton s book containing basic laws of physics, see Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. The title page of the shortened version of the Principia Mathematica to *56. The Principia Mathematica is a three volume work on the… …116

**Function (mathematics)**— f(x) redirects here. For the band, see f(x) (band). Graph of example function, In mathematics, a function associates one quantity, the a …117

**logic**— logicless, adj. /loj ik/, n. 1. the science that investigates the principles governing correct or reliable inference. 2. a particular method of reasoning or argumentation: We were unable to follow his logic. 3. the system or principles of… …118

**Greek arithmetic, geometry and harmonics: Thales to Plato**— Ian Mueller INTRODUCTION: PROCLUS’ HISTORY OF GEOMETRY In a famous passage in Book VII of the Republic starting at Socrates proposes to inquire about the studies (mathēmata) needed to train the young people who will become leaders of the ideal… …119

**Logicism**— is one of the schools of thought in the philosophy of mathematics, putting forth the theory that mathematics is an extension of logic and therefore some or all mathematics is reducible to logic.[1] Bertrand Russell and Alfred North Whitehead… …120

**Newton's theorem of revolving orbits**— Figure 1: An attractive force F(r) causes the blue planet to move on the cyan circle. The green planet moves three times faster and thus requires a stronger centripetal force, which is supplied by adding an attractive inverse cube force. The …