Paracelsus Par`a*cel"sus (p[a^]r`[.a]*s[e^]l"s[u^]s), prop. n. Philippus Aureolus Paracelsus (originally Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, also called Theophrastus Paracelsus and Theophrastus von Hohenheim). Born at Maria-Einsiedeln, in the Canton of Schwyz, Switzerland, Dec. 17 (or 10 Nov.), 1493: died at Salzburg, Sept. 23 (or 24), 1541. A celebrated German-Swiss physician, reformer of therapeutics, iatrochemist, and alchemist. He attended school in a small lead-mining district where his father, William Bombast von Hohenheim, was a physician and teacher of alchemy. The family originally came from W["u]rtemberg, where the noble family of Bombastus was in possession of the ancestral castle of Hohenheim near Stuttgart until 1409. He entered the University of Basel at the age of sixteen, where he adopted the name Paracelsus, after Celsius, a noted Roman physician. But he left without a degree, first going to Wurtzburg to study under Joannes Trithemius, Abbot of Sponheim (1462-1516), a famous astrologer and alchemist, who initiated him into the mysteries of alchemy. He then spent many years in travel and intercourse with distinguished scholars, studied and practiced medicine and surgery, and at one point attended the Diet of Worms. He was appointed to the office of city physician of Basel, which also made him a lecturer on medicine at Basel about 1526, where, through the publisher Johan Frobenius he made friends with the scholar Erasmus; and there he fulminated against the medical pseudo-science of his day, and against the blind adherence to ancient medical authorities such as Hippocrates, Galen, and Avicenna, which was still the prevalent philosophy of medicine in the sixteenth century. But soon, in 1528, he was driven from the city by the medical corporations, whose methods he had severely criticized. He found refuge with friends, and traveled and practiced medicine, but could not find a publisher willing to print his books. He preached frequently the need for experimentation in medicine. He is important in the history of medicine chiefly on account of the impetus which he gave to the development of pharmaceutical chemistry. He was also the author of a visionary and theosophic system of philosophy. The first collective edition of his works appeared at Basel in 1589-91. Among the many legends concerning him is that concerning his long sword, which he obtained while serving as barber-surgeon during the Neapolitan wars. It was rumored that in the hilt of the sword he kept a familiar or small demon; some thought he carried the elixer of life in the sword. He is buried in the cemetary of the Hospital of St. Sebastian in Salzburg. --Century Dict., 1906; --Bernard Jaffe (Crucibles: The Story of Chemistry, Revised Edition, 1948). [PJC]

The apothecaries, too, were enraged against this iconoclast [Paracelsus]. For had he not, as official town physician, demanded the right to inspect their stocks and rule over their prescriptions which he denounced as "foul broths"? These apothecaries had grown fat on the barbarous prescriptions of the local doctors. "The physician's duty is to heal the sick, not to enrich the apothecaries," he had warned them, and refused to send his patients to them to have the prescriptions compounded. He made his own medicines instead, and gave them free to his patients. . . . Then they hatched a plot and before long Basel had lost Paracelsus, ostensibly because of the meanness of a wealthy citizen. Paracelsus had sued Canon Lichtenfels for failure to pay him one hundred guldens promised for a cure. The patient had offered only six guldens, and the fiery Paracelsus, when the court deliberately handed in a verdict against him, rebuked it in such terms that his life was in imminent danger. In the dead of night, he was persuaded by his friends to leave secretly the city where he had hurled defiance at the pseudo-medicos of the world. --Bernard Jaffe (Crucibles: The Story of Chemistry, Revised Edition, 1948) [PJC]

Although the theories of Paracelsus as contrasted with the Galeno-Arabic system indicate no advance, inasmuch as they ignore entirely the study of anatomy, still his reputation as a reformer of therapeutics is justified in that he broke new paths in the science. He may be taken as the founder of modern materia medica, and pioneer of scientific chemistry, since before his time medical science received no assistance from alchemy. To Paracelsus is due the use of mercury for syphilis as well as a number of other metallic remedies, probably a result of his studies in Schwaz, and partly his acquaintance with the quicksilver works in Idria. --Catholic Encyclopedia, 1911 [PJC]

The Collaborative International Dictionary of English. 2000.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Paracélsus — Paracélsus, Philippus Aureolus P. Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, Arzt und Naturforscher, geb. 17. Dez. 1493 zu Maria Einsiedeln im Kanton Schwyz, gest. 24. Sept. 1541 in Salzburg, erhielt von seinem Vater, einem Arzt und Chemiker, den… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Paracelsus — (izg. paracȅlsus) (Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim) (1494 1541) DEFINICIJA švicarsko njemački liječnik, prirodoslovac i angažirani renesansni filozof; iako sklon alkemiji, astrologiji i mistici, inzistiranjem na egzaktnom… …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • Paracelsus — Paracelsus, eigentlich Philipp Theophrastus von Hohenheim od. gräcisirt P. genannt Aureolus Bombastus, geb. 1493 zu Einsiedeln im Canton Schwyz. Von seinem Vater, dem natürlichen Sohn eines Adeligen, von Hohenheim, einem Arzt u. Chemiker, erhielt …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Paracelsus — Paracelsus, Philippus Aureolus P. Theophrastus von Hohenheim, genannt Bombastus, Arzt, Chemiker und Theosoph, geb. 17. Dez. 1493 zu Maria Einsiedeln (Schwyz), nach unstetem Leben gest. 23. Sept. 1541 zu Salzburg; durch glückliche Kuren berühmt,… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Paracelsus — * Paracelsus liegt noch drum mit Galenus im Streite …   Deutsches Sprichwörter-Lexikon

  • Paracelsus — [par΄ə sel′səs] Philippus Aureolus [fi lip′əs ō̂ rē′ə ləs] (born Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim) 1493 1541; Swiss physician & alchemist …   English World dictionary

  • Paracelsus — Darstellung des Paracelsus (Theophrast von Hohenheim) in einem Gemälde von Quentin Massys Philippus Theophrastus Aureolus Bombast von Hohenheim, getauft als Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, genannt Paracelsus, (* vermutlich 10. November …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Paracelsus — This article is about Philippus von Hohenheim, known as Paracelsus. For other uses, see Hohenheim (disambiguation). Philippus von Hohenheim portrait by Quentin Massys Born Philip von Hohenheim 11 November 1493 …   Wikipedia

  • Paracelsus — Paracelsian, adj., n. Paracelsianism, n. Paracelsic, Paracelsistic, adj. Paracelsist, n. /par euh sel seuhs/, n. 1. Philippus Aureolus /fi lip euhs aw ree oh leuhs/, (Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim), 1493? 1541, Swiss physician and… …   Universalium

  • PARACELSUS — (1493 1541) A German physician, alchemist, and magician, Paracelsus is renowned for establishing the role of chemistry in medicine. Although his theories qualify as magical, his insistence upon experiential learning in the face of received… …   Renaissance and Reformation 1500-1620: A Biographical Dictionary

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”