Destructive distillation

Destructive distillation
Distillation Dis`til*la"tion (d[i^]s`t[i^]l*l[=a]"sh[u^]n), n. [F. distillation, L. destillatio.] 1. The act of falling in drops, or the act of pouring out in drops. [1913 Webster]

2. That which falls in drops. [R.] --Johnson [1913 Webster]

3. (Chem.) The separation of the volatile parts of a substance from the more fixed; specifically, the operation of driving off gas or vapor from volatile liquids or solids, by heat in a retort or still, and the condensation of the products as far as possible by a cool receiver, alembic, or condenser; rectification; vaporization; condensation; as, the distillation of illuminating gas and coal, of alcohol from sour mash, or of boric acid in steam. [1913 Webster]

Note: The evaporation of water, its condensation into clouds, and its precipitation as rain, dew, frost, snow, or hail, is an illustration of natural distillation. [1913 Webster]

4. The substance extracted by distilling. --Shak. [1913 Webster]

{Destructive distillation} (Chem.), the distillation, especially of complex solid substances, so that the ultimate constituents are separated or evolved in new compounds, -- usually requiring a high degree of heat; as, the destructive distillation of soft coal or of wood.

{Dry distillation}, the distillation of substances by themselves, or without the addition of water or of other volatile solvent; as, the dry distillation of citric acid.

{Fractional distillation}. (Chem.) See under {Fractional}. [1913 Webster]

The Collaborative International Dictionary of English. 2000.

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  • Destructive distillation — is the chemical process involving the decomposition of feedstock by heating to a high temperature; the term generally applies to processing of organic material in the absence of air or in the presence of limited amounts of oxygen or other… …   Wikipedia

  • Destructive distillation — Destructive De*struc tive, a. [L. destructivus: cf. F. destructif.] Causing destruction; tending to bring about ruin, death, or devastation; ruinous; fatal; productive of serious evil; mischievous; pernicious; often with of or to; as,… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • destructive distillation — n. the decomposition of a material, as coal, wood, etc., by heat in the absence of air, followed by the recovery of volatile products of the decomposition by condensation or other means: a type of calcination: see PYROLYSIS …   English World dictionary

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  • destructive distillation — dry distillation decomposition of a solid by heating in the absence of air, which results in volatile liquid products …   Medical dictionary

  • destructive distillation — Process of distillation in which a hydrocarbon or other organic compound or mixture is heated to a temperature high enough to cause its decomposition …   Petroleum refining glossary

  • destructive distillation — dry distillation, decomposition or destruction of organic substances by means of heat and an absence of air (produces products such as coke, charcoal, oils and gases) …   English contemporary dictionary

  • destructive distillation — noun Date: circa 1831 decomposition of a substance (as wood, coal, or oil) by heat in a closed container and collection of the volatile products produced …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • destructive distillation — Chem. the decomposition of a substance, as wood or coal, by heating with a minimal exposure to air, and the collection of the volatile products formed. [1825 35] * * * …   Universalium

  • destructive distillation — noun The heating of a material, such as coal or wood, in an inert atmosphere, at a high temperature such as to cause decomposition; the principal products include oils …   Wiktionary

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